Science

Disputed

Matilda 7 April 1141 - 1 November 1141

daughter of Henry I and Edith or Matilda of Scotland. (1) Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor Mainz 6 January 1114 no children (2) Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou Le Mans Cathedral 22 May 1128 three children. Empress Matilda was declared heir presumptive by her father, Henry I, after the death of her brother on the White Ship, and acknowledged as such by the barons. However, upon Henry I's death, the throne was seized by Matilda's cousin, Stephen of Blois. The Anarchy ensued, with Matilda being a de facto ruler for a few months in 1141—the first woman so to be—but she was never crowned and is rarely listed as a monarch of England. Stephen came to an agreement with Matilda in November 1153 with the signing of the Treaty of Wallingford, where Stephen recognised Henry, son of Matilda, as the heir-apparent to the throne in lieu of his own son, who had died that August. Rather than ruling among the Normans, the Angevins ruled from Aquitaine — lands which were acquired through Henry II's marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, but did not regard England as their primary home until after most of their French possessions were lost by King John. Though the Angevin Dynasty was short-lived, their male line descendants included the House of Plantagenet, the House of Lancaster and the House of York. The Angevins formulated England's royal coat of arms, which usually showed other kingdoms held or claimed by them or their successors, although without representation of Ireland for quite some time.