Particle physics

Elementary particles

All elementary particles are either fermions, which are particles normally associated with matter and have half-integer spin, or bosons, which are associated with fundamental forces and have integer spin.


Fermions, the fundamentl particles of matters, consist of quarks and leptons.


up, down, charm, strange, top, bottom. Quarks combines to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons.


Electrons, neutrinos, muon, tau


Gauge bosons and other bosons

Gauge bosons

gluon, W and Z bosons, photon

Other bosons

Higgs boson and graviton

Fundamental forces

electromagnetism, strong interaction, weak interaction (also known as "strong" and "weak nuclear force") and gravitation


spin is a fundamental characteristic property of elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei. Wolfgang Pauli was the first to propose the concept of spin. When Paul Dirac derived his relativistic quantum mechanics in 1928, electron spin was an essential part thereof.